1. Answer the following questions.

(i) What is meant by the term 'industry'?
The term 'industry' refers to an economic activity that is concerned with the production of goods (e.g., iron and steel industry), extraction of minerals (e.g., coal mining industry) or provision of services (e.g., tourism industry).

(ii) What are the main factors which influence the location of an industry?
Factors influencing the location of an industry:
→ Availability of raw material
→ Availability of land
→ Adequate supply of water
→ Adequate supply of labour
→ Access to power
→ Amount of capital
→ Access to transport
→Presence of market

(iii) Which industry is often referred to as the backbone of modern industry and why?
Iron and steel industry is often referred to as the backbone of the modern industry because almost everything is either made from iron or steel or has been made using tools and machineries of these metals. There are plenty of examples like -ships, trains, vehicles; all are made largely of steel. Materials of our day-to-day use starting safety pin to our building in which we live, are made from steel. Without the use of iron no industry can run.

(iv) Why cotton textile industry rapidly expanded in Mumbai?
Cotton textile rapidly expanded in Mumbai because its warm, moist climate, facility of port for importing of machinery and above all the easy availability of skilled labour.

(v) What are the similarities between information technology industry in Bangalore and California?
Similarities between information technology industry in Bangalore and California:
→ Presence of high quality educational institutions, and advanced scientific and technological centres
→ Pleasant climate and clean environment.
→ Presence of good quality, skilled workforce.
→ Access to markets.
→ Well-developed and well-connected.

2. Tick the correct answer.

(i) Silicon Valley is located in
(a) Bangalore
(b) California
(c) Ahmedabad
► (b) California

(ii) Which one of the following industries is known as sunrise industry?
(a) Iron and steel industry
(b) Cotton textile
(c) Information technology
► (c) Information technology

(iii) Which one of the following is a natural fibre?
(a) Nylon
(b) Jute
(c) Acrylic
► (b) Jute

3. Distinguish between the following

(i) Agro-based and mineral-based industry
Agro-based industry
Mineral-based industry
Uses plant and animal products as raw materials
Uses mineral ores as raw materials
Source of employment for people in rural areas
Source of employment for people in rural as well as urban areas
Example: Dairy industry, cotton textile industry
Example: Iron and steel industry, heavy machinery industry

(ii) Public-sector and joint-sector industry
Public-sector industry
Joint-sector industry
Owned and operated by the government
Jointly owned and operated by the government and individuals or a group of individuals
Example: Hindustan Aeronautics Limited, Steel Authority of India Limited
Example: Maruti Udyog Limited

4. Give two examples of the following in the space provided.

(i) Raw materials: ____________ and _____________
(ii) End product: ____________ and _____________
(iii) Tertiary activities: ____________ and _____________
(iv) Agro-based industries: ____________ and _____________
(v) Cottage industries: ____________ and _____________
(vi) Co-operatives: ____________ and _____________


(i)Raw materials: cotton and steel
(ii)End product: shirt and safety pin
(iii)Tertiary activities: banking and transport
(iv)Agro-based industries: dairy industry and cotton textile industry
(v)Cottage industries: pottery industry and basket-weaving industry
(vi)Co-operatives: Anand Milk Union Limited and Sudha Dairy

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