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1. Answer the following questions.

(i) Why are people considered a resource?
People are considered a resource because with their demands and capabilities they can create new resources. Nature’s bounty becomes important only when people find it and make it useful for them. Hence, human resource is also considered an important and potential resource for the society.

(ii) What are the causes for the uneven distribution of population in the world?
The distribution of population in the world is uneven - some areas are very crowded while some are sparsely populated. There are various reasons behind uneven distribution:
→ Geographical factors: Favourable topography, availability of mineral and fresh water resources, favourable climate and soil fertility are some of the reasons affecting population distribution e.g., Indo Gangetic Plains, Diamond Mines of South Africa etc are densely populated.
→ Social and Cultural factors: Areas of better housing, education and health facilities are more populated. Places of religious and cultural significance also attract people e.g., Varanasi, Jerusalem etc.
→ Economic factors: Places having more industries, transportation and communication facilities provide better employment opportunities. People are attracted to these places because of the above reasons e.g., Mumbai, Osaka etc.

(iii) The world population has grown very rapidly. Why?
The world population has grown very rapidly because the death rate has gone down as a result of the growth of food supplies and the improvement of medical facilities. Also, unlike the death rate, the birth rate has remained quite high.

(iv) Discuss the role of any two factors influencing population change.
The birth rate and the death rate are two factors that influence population change. The birth rate is the number of live births per 1000 people while the death rate is the number of deaths per 1000 people. These are the natural causes of population change. When the birth rate is higher than the death rate, population increases. When the death rate is more than the birth rate, population decreases. When the two rates are equal, the population remains constant. Thus, the birth and death rates affect the balance of population.

(v) What is meant by population composition?
Population composition refers to the structure of the population. Population composition helps to know the number of males or female, their age-groups, literacy, their occupation, their income level and health conditions etc.

(vi) What are population pyramids? How do they help in understanding about the population of a country?

The graphical illustration that is used for studying the population composition of a country is called population pyramids. It shows the present number of males and females in a country along with their age groups. The age-group distribution of population tells us the number of dependents and the number of economically active individuals present in the population.

2. Tick the correct answer.

(i) Which does the term population distribution refer to?
(a) How population in a specified area changes over time.
(b) The number of people who die in relation to the number of people born in a specified area.
(c) The way in which people are spread across a given area.
► (c) The way in which people are spread across a given area.

(ii) Which are three main factors that cause population change?
(a) Births, deaths and marriage
(b) Births, deaths and migration
(c) Births, deaths and life expectancy
► (b) Births, deaths and migration

(iii) In 1999, the world population reached
(a) 1 billion
(b) 3 billion
(c) 6 billion
► (c) 6 billion

(iv) What is a population pyramid?
(a) A graphical presentation of the age, sex composition of a population.
(b) When the population density of an area is so high that people live in tall buildings.
(c) Pattern of population
► (a) A graphical presentation of the age, sex composition of a population.

3. Complete the sentences below using some of the following words.

sparsely, favourable, fallow, artificial, fertile, natural, extreme, densely

When people are attracted to an area it becomes ___________ populated. Factors that influence this include _________ climate; good supplies of ____________ resources and _____________ land.

Answer

When people are attracted to an area it becomes densely populated. Factors that influence this includefavourable climate; good supplies of natural resources and fertile land.

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