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Excercises

1. Answer the following questions.

(i) What is agriculture?
Agriculture is the primary activity which includes growing of crops, fruits, vegetables, flowers and rearing of livestock. It is also known as farming.

(ii) Name the factors influencing agriculture.
Various factors influencing agriculture are - Favourable topography, Soil and Climate.

(iii) What is shifting cultivation? What are its disadvantages?
Shifting cultivation or slash-and-burn cultivation is a type of farming activity which involves clearing a plot of land by felling trees, burning the felled trees, mixing the ashes with soil, and then growing crops like maize, yam, potatoes and cassava on the cleared land. After the soil loses its fertility, the land is abandoned and the cultivator moves on to a new plot. 
This type of farming has the following disadvantages.
→ Deforestation
→ After some time the land loses its fertility.
→ Soil erosion.
→ Small patches of cultivation which is insufficient for feeding a large population.

(iv) What is plantation agriculture?Plantation agriculture is a type of commercial farming where a single crop of tea, coffee, sugarcane, cashew, rubber, banana or cotton is grown. Large amount of labour and capital is required in this type of farming. The produce is either processed on the farm itself or in nearby factories. Major plantations are found in the tropical regions of the world, like rubber in Malaysia, coffee in Brazil, tea in India and Sri Lanka, etc.

(v) Name the fibre crops and name the climatic conditions required for their growth.
Jute & cotton are known as fiber crops. The climatic conditions required for their growth are:
→ Jute (Golden Fiber): High temperature more than 25°C, heavy rainfall, warm and humid climate.
→ Cotton: High temperature around 30 - 40°C, low rainfall and most importantly 210 frost-free days and bright sunshine. Means lot of cloud-free sunny days is essential for cotton growing.

2. Tick the correct answer.

(i) Horticulture means
(a) Growing of fruits and vegetables
(b) Primitive farming
(c) Growing of wheat
► (a) Growing of fruits and vegetables

(ii) Golden fibre refers to
(a) Tea
(b) Cotton
(c) Jute
► (c) Jute

(iii) Leading producer of coffee
(a) Brazil
(b) India
(c) Russia
► (a) Brazil 

3. Give reasons.

(i) In India agriculture is a primary activity.
Two-third of India's population is dependent upon agriculture. Hence, in India, agriculture is a primary activity.

(ii) Different crops are grown in different regions.
Different crops are grown in different regions because growing of crops depends upon the geographical conditions, demand of produce, labour and level of technology. Favourable topography of soil, climates also play an important role in selection of crops to be grown in that area.

4. Distinguish between the following.

(i) Primary activities and tertiary activities
Primary activities
Tertiary activities
Connected with the extraction and production of natural resources
Provide support to the primary and secondary sectors
Example: Agriculture, fishing
Example: Services such as banking and transport

(ii) Subsistence farming and intensive farming
Subsistence farming
Intensive farming
Practised to meet the needs of the farmer’s family; involves the use of low levels of technology and household labour for producing a small output
A type of subsistence farming; involves the annual cultivation of a small plot of land using simple tools and more labour

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