The main land of India extends between latitudes 8°4'N and 37°6'N and longitudes 68°7'E and 97°25'E. The Tropic of Cancer (23° 30'N) passes almost through the middle of the country. Apart from the mainland, the Andaman and Nicobar Islands (Indian Ocean) and the Lakshadweep (Arabian Sea) are also parts of India.
The land mass of India has an area of 3.28 million (3.28 lakh) square km; which comprises about 2.4% of the total geographical area of the world. India is the seventh largest country in the world.
The land boundary of India is 15,200 km. The coastline of the country is 7,516.6 km; which includes the Andaman and Nicobar and Lakshadweep.
The latitudinal and longitudinal extent of India is about 30°. The time along the Standard Meridian is taken as the Indian Standard Time. The Standard Meridian of India passes through Mirzapur in UP which is located at 82°30’ east. The time lag between Arunachal Pradesh (in the east) and Gujarat (in the west) is about 2 hours. When one moves from south to north, the latitudinal extent influences the duration of day and night.
India and the world
India is centrally located between the East and the West Asia. India is strategically located at the centre of the trans-Indian Ocean routes which connect the European countries in the west and the countries of East Asia. Thus, India could establish close contact with West Asia, Africa and Europe from the western coast. Moreover, it could establish close contact with Southeast and East Asia from the eastern coast.
In the northwest, India shares its boundaries with Pakistan and Afghanistan. China and Nepal are its northern neighbours. Its eastern neighbours are Bangladesh and Myanmar. Maldives and Sri Lanka are its southern neighbours.
NCERT Exercise Solutions - India: Size and Location
A - Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below.
Question:- 1 - The Tropic of Cancer does not pass through
Answer:- (b) Orissa
Question: 2 - The easternmost longitude of India is
(a) 97° 25' E
(b) 68° 7' E
(c) 77° 6' E
(d) 82° 32' E
Answer:- (a) 97° 25’ E
Question: 3 Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal and Sikkim have common frontiers with
Answer: (c) Nepal
Question: 3 If you intend to visit Kavarati during your summer vacations, which one of the following Union Territories of India you will be going to
(c) Andaman and Nicobar
(d) Diu and Daman
Answer: (b) Lakshadweep
Question: 4 - My friend hails from a country which does not share land boundary with India. Identify the country.
Answer: (b) Tajikistan
B - Answer the following questions briefly.
Question: 1 - Name the group of islands lying in the Arabian sea.
Question: 2 - Name the countries which are larger than India.
Answer: Russia, Canada, USA, China, Brazil and Australia are larger than India.
Question: 3 - Which island group of India lies to its south-east?
Answer: Andaman and Nicobar Islands
Question: 4 - Which island countries are our southern neighbours?
Answer: Maldives and Sri Lanka
Question: 5 - The sun rises two hours earlier in Arunachal Pradesh as compared to Gujarat in the west but the watches show the same time. How does this happen?
Answer: The longitudinal gap between Arunachal Pradesh and Gujarat is about 30°. Due to this, there is time lag of about two hours between these states. Since Arunachal Pradesh is in the east hence the sun rises earlier here; compared to in Gujarat. The Indian Standard Time is taken from the time of Standard Meridian of India and hence the watches show the same time in both the states.
Question: 6 - The central location of India at the head of the Indian Ocean is considered of great significance. Why?
Answer: India is centrally located between the East and the West Asia. India is strategically located at the centre of the trans-Indian Ocean routes which connect the European countries in the west and the countries of East Asia. Thus, India could establish close contact with West Asia, Africa and Europe from the western coast. Moreover, it could establish close contact with Southeast and East Asia from the eastern coast. This shows the significance of India’s location in the Indian Ocean.